Techniques of Scientific Management

Time Study

  1. It is a technique which enables the manager to ascertain standard time taken for performing a specified job.
  2. Every job or every part of it is studied in detail.
  3. This technique is based on the study of an average worker having reasonable skill and ability.
  4. Average worker is selected and assigned the job and then with the help of a stop watch, time is ascertained for performing that particular job.
  5. Taylor maintained that Fair day’s work should be determined through observations, experiment and analysis by keeping in view an average worker.

    Standard Time × Working Hours = Fair Day’s Work

  6. Motion Study


    1. In this study, movement of body and limbs required to perform a job are closely observed.
    2. In other words, it refers to the study of movement of an operator on machine involved in a particular task.
    3. The purpose of motion study is to eliminate useless motions and determine the bet way of doing the job.
    4. By undertaking motion study an attempt is made to know whether some elements of a job can be eliminated combined or their sequence can be changed to achieve necessary rhythm.
    5. Motion study increases the efficiency and productivity of workers by cutting down all wasteful motions.


  7. Functional Foremanship


    1. Taylor advocated functional foremanship for achieving ultimate specification.
    2. This technique was developed to improve the quality of work as single supervisor may not be an expert in all the aspects of the work.
    3. Therefore workers are to be supervised by specialist foreman.
    4. The scheme of functional foremanship is an extension of principle pf specialization at the supervisory level.
    5. Taylor advocated appointment of 8 foramen, 4 at the planning level & other 4 at implementation level.
    6. The names & function of these specialist foremen are: –
      • Instruction card clerk concerned with tagging down of instructions according to which workers are required to perform their job
      • Time & cost clerk is concerned with setting a time table for doing a job & specifying the material and labor cost involved in it.
      • Route clerk determines the route through which raw materials has to be passed.
      • Shop Disciplinarians are concerned with making rules and regulations to ensure discipline in the organization.
      • Gang boss makes the arrangement of workers, machines, tools, workers etc.
      • Speed boss concerned with maintaining the speed and to remove delays in the production process.
      • Repair boss concerned with maintenance of machine, tools and equipments.
      • Inspector is concerned with maintaining the quality of product.
  8. Standardization

    1. It implies the physical attitude of products should be such that it meets the requirements & needs of customers.
    2. Taylor advocated that tools & equipments as well as working conditions should be standardized to achieve standard output from workers.
    3. Standardization is a means of achieving economics of production.
    4. It seems to ensure –
      • The line of product is restricted to predetermined type, form, design, size, weight, quality. Etc
      • There is manufacture of identical parts and components.
      • Quality & standards have been maintained.
      • Standard of performance are established for workers at all levels.
  9. Differential Piece Wage Plan

    1. This tech of wage payment is based on efficiency of worker.
    2. The efficient workers are paid more wages than inefficient one.
    3. On the other hand, those workers who produce less than standard no. of pieces are paid wages at lower rate than prevailing rate i.e. worker is penalized for his inefficiency.
    4. This system is a source of incentive to workers who improving their efficiency in order to get more wages.
    5. It also encourages inefficient workers to improve their performance and achieve their standards.
    6. It leads to mass production which minimizes cost and maximizes profits.
  10. Other Techniques

    1. Various other techniques have been developed to create ordeal relationship between management and workers and also to create better understanding on part of works.
    2. Those includes use of instruction cards, strict rules & regulations, graphs, slides, charts etc, so as to increase efficiency of workers.

Types of Laboratories in the World of Research

There are many types of laboratories in the world of research. In a sense, this is because there are so many types of laboratories that perform different types of research on all different types of organisms. These types of laboratories also vary greatly depending on the type of research they perform and the type of organisms they work with. However, when it comes to types of laboratories in the world of research, there are two primary types.

One type of laboratory is one that works directly with one specific type of organism. For example, a medical research laboratory will likely work with bacteria if it is investigating diseases or if it is investigating how certain types of infections are spread. A research lab may also work directly with enzymes if it is investigating the way these work and if they are useful in the area of research. Other types of laboratories in the world of research may work indirectly. For instance, some types of laboratories in the world of research may test products for their ability to kill off particular types of organisms in a specific environment without directly dealing with living organisms themselves.

Another type of laboratory is one that works indirectly. For example, research scientists may work on ways to create new types of organisms if they can find ways to get a particular type of organism to reproduce. The way that this works is that they will work to get a certain type of organism to reproduce and then look for a way to make that reproduction occur. This can be done through simple experimentation or by working to manipulate the environment in order to create the conditions needed to make the reproduction occur.

In many ways, the work that scientists do as types of laboratories in the world of research can seem similar to the work that scientists do in a variety of other fields. For example, researchers work with the chemistry of various types of matter to try and find a way to alter the structure of that matter so that it can create a different type of matter. They also look for ways to make the new matter stable to use in various types of future experiments. In some ways, these types of laboratories can be seen as taking an experimental approach to science. However, it should be noted that there are two main differences between these types of laboratories and those in different fields.

First, in the case of research, the results are often seen immediately. On the other hand, when a lab does something like producing a new type of organism or material, it may not see immediate results. Because of this, the types of laboratories in the world of research must be capable of producing quick results. There also has to be a method of controlling variables so that the final product can be seen quickly.

The types of laboratories in the world of research also have to be large enough to hold all of the required equipment and supplies for the research that is being done. There has to be provisions for the storage of these materials, as well as provisions for cooling and heating. Without the right types of facilities, research in many cases simply cannot occur. It takes a lot of hard work and research to make sure that the types of laboratories in the world of research are able to continue producing the types of results that people need.